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Family policy in the Russia – historical retrospection and tasks for the future reforms
In the paper author, standing on gender-based approach, tries to rethink the historic retrospection of Russian family policy and suggest possible tasks for future reforms in order to solve many urgent family problems.
The problems almost every family is facing during everyday life have a link with surrounding social environment and historic background. Particularly it had become a serious problem in the last 20 and beginning of the 21 century, when such process as globalization and modernization brought new types of challenges to societies to respond. Otherwise, already existing problems could take a turn for the worse and become much more complicated to solve or find some methods for it.
The paper focuses on such dynamic society as Russian, which had faced with many challenges and moreover - had been drastically transforming during changes at ideology course from socialism to capitalism in the 1990s years. This affected institution of family itself and the way of taking measures with type of relationship between government and family. The family considered as a significant and inseparable part of rapidly changing society.
In chapter 1 author summed up and made some analysis of family problems and family policy in Soviet Russia. The government’s attitude towards family had two distinctive and both opposite periods – until the Second World War and after it. The period until WWII – religion and family were denied by country`s leaders as a social institutions, but since 1945s years (period after WWII) in order to regain economic growth and stability, Communist Party of the Soviet Union took a course to reborn family institution and emphasized the role of “working mother”. On the one hand, there are many positive points of family policy at the USSR period - a large-scale building of kindergartens and complex development of child rising infrastructure as a whole, comprehensive support for women who have infants, but on the other hand it can be seen a paternalistic type of family and government interaction that resulted in appearance of “working mother`s gender contract” and “women’s double burden” problems. Working women were considered as the only one object of the family policy measures and there are a lot of critique among Russian gender researchers, who consider in negative way USSR men`s exclusion of family policy at macro level and relatively low rate of their participation in family affairs like domestic chores or child raising - at micro level.
Chapter 2 of the paper is about family problems in “post-perestroika” of Russian society. Instead of socialism ideology new culture values from western countries has been translated and steadily integrated in mass consciousness. This, undoubtedly, had a great impact on family. First of all, at the period from 1990 to beginning of 2000s, both unemployment and death-rate had vastly risen. At the same time fertility rate had dropped. Thus, it led to many demography problems. Concerning government`s reaction on family problems, it could be said that for a first time at top level has been used term “family policy” and in 1996 has been adopted document called “About main direction of nation family policy”. As result of analysis of the document, it has been revealed many contradictions in its content. But there was a great step towards “partnership” type of relationships between government and family, cause, at least at theoretical level, government stated diversification of family policy`s actors. The document is an attempt to make a shift from paternalistic type to partnership type.
Chapter 3 is devoted to period from 2006 to 2013, when economy growth paved the way for further financial measures in area of family policy. Government introduced “Mother`s capital” – a significant sum of money granted to mothers who have given second birth. With the reference to data of social research called “Men and Women, Kids and Parents” it becomes clear that in spite of large-scale financial grants, results were relatively moderate. The government did not take into account the real needs of men and women, who actually construct family. One of such needs is work-life balance measures, that have a potential to play a large role not only to solve demography problems, but to solve many gender-related and child rising (or caregiving) ones.
In chapter 4 author analyses and makes an assessment of future reforms (starting from 2014) in area of family policy, based on document published in 2013 - “The concept of national family policy until 2025 year (public project)”. According to the document Russian government again declares family policy`s actor diversification, but there is a great question how they will be supported and, therefore, how effective they can be. Moreover, it is postulated about some Russian traditional family values of high fertility, also denied multiplicity forms of modern family by emphasizing a “fortunate family” and creating family standards as legitimated ones. For first time, has been devoted a great role of religion institutions and particularly - Orthodox branch of Christianity, and, as result, church has been determined as one of main family policy actor. The problems of finding balance and dissolving various problems between work and life are touched only by indirection and in spite of many positive points of the document, it is clear that government does not still ready to form partnership type of family policy.
In the final chapter, while author taking into account and summaries previous features of Russian family policy, he also studies Japanese experience of work-life balance related measures, in order to find out some possible implications for Russia`s further reforms and directions in family policy area. During examination of Japanese work-life balance`s actors (government, enterprises, NPO etc.) it is suggested to focus on effective ways of interactions between the actors, and create a basis for introduction of work-life balance measures with the consideration for specific features of Russian society at whole, and regional differences in particularly. To solve many gender and demographic problems, to rise level of country`s competitive rate at global arena – there is an actual necessity to shift to partnership type of family policy with various actors. Each of the actors should play it`s specific role and put efforts towards forming society with different types of families and needs to be fulfilled.
Key words: Family policy in Russia, gender, paternalism, partnership, work-life-balance
EDUCATION AND THE GENDER RELATIONS TRANSFORMATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION IN JAPAN
Mircha, A.V. Education and the gender relations transformations in the conditions of cultural globalization in Japan.
Philosophy of Education, 2010 year, number 1, Pages: 153-161
In the article the author studies the role of educational institutions of Japan in bringing into life the politics of transformation of the gender relations in the conditions of cultural globalization. The author points out the high significance of educational institutions in the process of adopting new values in a "strong" culture (like the Japanese one), because they are generating social subjects who accept these new values.
Keywords: gender relations, cultural globalization, dualism of "soto/uchi", transformation of traditional values, educational and political institutions
"THE ROLE OF THE INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION IN TRANSFORMING GENDER RELATIONS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION IN JAPAN"
You can download the paper as a file here
145-155 pp. Mircha_Zinevich The role of institute of education 2010.pdf (619,1 kB)
Philosophy of education, special issue №3 2010、 O.V. Zinevich, A.V. Mircha
My publications during 2008-2010 years
1. Мирча А. В. Образование и гендерная трансформация в условиях культурной глобализации Японии // Философия образования. – Новосибирск : Изд-во СО РАН, 2010, № 1 (30). С. 153–161.
2. Мирча А. В. Распространение гендерного дискурса в условиях культурной глобализации Японии // Вестник НГУ. Серия: Философия. 2010. Т. 8, вып. 4. – С. 101–105.
3. Мирча А. В. Японский язык в гендерном измерении: изменение стилей речи в условиях социокультурных трансформаций // Философия образования. – Новосибирск : Изд-во СО РАН, 2010. – № 3 (32). – С. 289–294.
4. Mircha A., Zinevich O. The role of the institute of educational in transforming gender relations under the conditions of cultural globalization in Japan // Philosophy of Education – special issue – Publishing House, KREACE, Ltd., N 3, 2010. Р. 145–155. [Роль института образования в трансформации гендерных отношений Японии в условиях культурной глобализации]
5. Мирча А. В. Гендерные исследования как инструмент достижения гендерного равенства в японском обществе // Социально-философские и экономические аспекты развития современного общества : Материалы Межд. науч.-практ. конф. (14 апреля 2008 г.). В 2 ч. – Ч. 1. /отв. ред. Л. А. Тягунова. – Саратов, 2008. – С. 287–291.
6. Мирча А. В. Развитие гендерных исследований в японском обществе // Материалы XLVI Межд. науч. студенч. конф. «Студент и научно-технический прогресс»: Востоковедение / НГУ. – Новосибирск, 2008. – С. 106–108.
7. Мирча А. В. Роль философского анализа в изучении гендерных отношений // Наука. Технологии. Инновации : материалы Всерос. науч. конф. молодых ученых в 7 ч. – Новосибирск : Изд-во НГТУ, 2008. Ч. 7. – С. 190–191.